Sunday, May 15, 2016

Family In The News: Wilhelmina “Minnie” (Kuhn) Scherrer -- Pioneer German Resident Will Be Buried Tomorrow

     My latest find in the newspapers brought a new family face.  I have written recently about this great grandaunt, Minnie (Kuhn) Scherrer, as she immigrated from Hessen in 1857 and cared for her mother, Kate (Birkenstock) Kuhn, when she lost her sight in old age.  But until now I had no idea what Minnie looked like.  Another late night of  newspaper searches yielded an interesting obituary… with a bonus photo and a glimpse at her life.  The Indianapolis Star on Sunday, 17 March 1912, contained the following article: 


Obituary: Wilhelmina Kuhn Scherrer, "Pioneer German Resident Will Be Buried Tomorrow"


Indianapolis Star, 17 March 1912:
Pioneer German Resident Will Be Buried Tomorrow
Mrs. Wilhelmina Scherrer
The funeral of Wilhelmina Scherrer, widow of John Scherrer, who died Thursday at her home, 955 High Street, will be held at 9 o'clock tomorrow morning at the Catholic Church of the Sacred Heart.  Mrs. Scherrer was a pioneer resident of Indianapolis and had lived at the present family home ever since she came to Indianapolis about 48 years ago.  She was born at Neustadt, Kuhrhessen, Germany, and came to America when she was 14 years old, living first in Cincinnati.  Later she resided in Connersville, where she married John Scherrer. She is survived by five sons,  Fred, Charles, Jacob, George and Louis Scherrer, and one daughter, Elizabeth Scherrer, and five grandchildren.


    The reference to Wilhelmina being a “pioneer German resident” refers to the fact that she and her husband, John Scherrer, moved to Indianapolis soon after they married in 1864 in Connersville, Indiana.  Minnie would have been in America for seven years at that time.   Sure do wish this photo was clearer. But I’m glad the family made the effort to give us an impression of her.  Wilhelmina’s obituary was probably written by her daughter, Elizabeth Scherrer, who passed along family history generously years later to anyone who inquired.  Speaking of history, Elizabeth lived in the family home on High Street until her death at 91 years of age, an additional 62 years after her mother passed away. Other stories that include more information on Wilhelmina (Kuhn) Scherrer’s journey are at these links:

     Three Kuhn Children Immigrated in 1857

     Katherine Kuhn Bequeaths Her Property To Wilhelmina

     The Kuhn, Risch, Scherrer Neighborhood in 1880 & 1900

     If you have other stories about Minnie, or perhaps a better photograph, I would be happy to hear from you.  Also, I am open to sharing the family history I have documented so far.  If I can assist any cousin, let me know.

Thanks for visiting Indiana Ties,



Copyright © 2016, Nancy Niehaus Hurley

Tuesday, May 10, 2016

Passenger Lists: Martin & Katherine Kuhn’s Family – From Hessen to America in 1853, 1857 and 1862

     There’s a “boat load” of family history wrapped up in these passenger arrival records for the Kuhn family.  Difficult decisions…determination…patience…courage…  This challenging family move from Germany to America spanned nine years, 1853 - 1862.  

     Of course we can’t know exactly why the Kuhns decided to risk establishing a totally new home thousands of miles across an ocean. Surely, the decision must have involved major frustration and lose of hope in the future. Crop failures, food shortages, wars, inheritance laws, mandatory military service and rigid social class structure are a few of the strong motivations that pushed many German emigrants. When friends wrote letters describing the improved standard of living they were experiencing in America a great many disheartened people eagerly pursued that same path.
Putting the Kuhn Plan In Place
      I can imagine Martin and Kate having growing concerns. They face the bleak outlook for their seven children, five boys and two girls. The oldest child, Gottfried, is sixteen in 1850. They have concerns for his opportunities to establish himself in a trade or make a living at farming. They were probably also worried about his requirement for mandatory military service. His brother, Fred, is only four years younger and will soon be facing these same concerns. Other friends and family have left to find opportunity and freedom in the United States. It sounds like the answer to a better life for the Kuhns too. 

     Then, around 1852, the family plan comes together. Let’s say Martin and the older sons, Gottfried and Fred,  make enough money in the next year for Gottfried’s passage on a ship to America.  The plan includes him finding a job in the state of Ohio in a city called Cincinnati, where many other Germans have established themselves. Gottfried could send money home to help with the expenses for the next oldest three children, Fred, Minnie and Barney, to make the voyage in approximately four years.  After the four children are together in Ohio and find employment, they could help out by sending money for the others to join them. 
Gathering the Family In America
    The Kuhn family journey had to include numerous struggles.  For instance, it took five years after the second voyage of children for Martin and Kate to arrive with the remainder of the family. When the final family group arrives in 1862, there are a total of nine children, two being born after the oldest child left Hessen for America.    Even though we don’t have all the details, we can begin to weave together this episode of family history with what we do know.  I know the where, how and when of their trips.  And we can add a sprinkling of family lore passed along by their descendants.  After that, each one of us can imagine in our own way the scenarios for Martin, Kate, Gottfried, Fred, Minnie, Barney, Marianne, Charles, Richard and Adam. So, to start this saga moving, here are the ships’ passenger records:  
Step One:  Gottfried Kuhn arrives in New Orleans, Louisiana, 11 November 1853 on the ship Eva.
     Gottfried’s voyage took approximately six weeks from Bremen to New Orleans.  Below are images of two of the pages from the ship’s passenger list. The first page below is the beginning of the record showing the ship’s name, Eva, the port of departure and arrival, along with 45 of the passengers.  Next is a subsequent page listing Gottl. Kuhn as #65, male, age 18, farmer (see blue arrow). 
     Family history passed down through Gottfried’s descendants relates the story of the cholera and yellow fever epidemics raging in New Orleans when he arrived there.  They say that he hurried to leave New Orleans as soon as possible.  Fortunately he was not infected.  He traveled to Cincinnati, Ohio, to begin his life as a German-American among the many fellow countrymen there.
Passenger List, Ship Eva, 11 Nov 1853, Page 1
  Passenger List containing #65, Gottl Kuhn, Age 18, male, Farmer
Source: Passenger Lists of Vessels Arriving at New Orleans, Louisiana, 1820-1902. National Archives Microfilm Publ: M259; Roll # 38.
In case your curious, at the end of this post is a link to a transcription of the passenger list from the Eva arriving 11 Nov 1853.  Also, if you would like to read about the 1853 epidemics in New Orleans, there’s  a website below.
Step Two: Fred, Minnie and Barney leave Bremen on the Joannes on 15 May 1857 and arrive at Baltimore, MD, 27 June 1857.
     Three more members of the Kuhn family boarded a ship for America at ages 18, 15 and 12.  The first page of the passenger list below gives the ship’s name, her captain and 29 of the passengers.  The second page below includes the three Kuhn children (see blue arrows): #186, Ferdinand Kuhn, Occupation: Laborer, Age 18, From Neustadt, Whither: Cincinnati;  #187, Minna Kuhn, Age 15, Neustadt, Cincinnati; #188, Benedict Kuhn, Age 12, Neustadt, Cincinnati.
     A family story told to my Aunt Dolly Holzer by a direct descendant of Minnie Kuhn includes this chapter when these three children, traveling ahead of their parents, came to the United States.  And yet another confirming treasure, a letter from Elizabeth Scherrer, states that her mother, Minnie Kuhn Scherrer, came to U. S. in 1857 at 14 years old.
    I’ll always wonder if the choice of arrival port in Baltimore had anything to do with Gottfried’s experience with the epidemics in 1853. Maybe he advised his younger siblings to make plans to come through Baltimore instead of New Orleans.  Maybe he felt the city had better sanitation or was safer.  Just wondering!
       Kuhn Children Passenger List 1857 (2)
       Kuhn Children Passenger List 1857 (3) 
Source:; Passenger Lists of Vessels Arriving at Baltimore, Maryland, 1820-1891. Microfilm Publication M255. NARA, Wash., D.C.
Step Three:  Martin and Katherine Kuhn and seven of their children, including my great grandfather, Charles, arrive in Baltimore, MD, 21 Aug 1862.
     Mother and father, Katherine and Martin, arrive nine years after the first child emigrated from Neustadt, Hessen. Below are two pages of the passenger arrival records for the ship Albert from Bremen when they docked in Baltimore, Maryland on 21 August 1862.  Here we learn there were 103 aliens and five citizens aboard. The Kuhns are on the second page below, steerage passengers #88 through #94, ranging in ages from 54 to 7: Martin, Anna Cath., Marianne, Jakob, Carl, Richard, Adam.  The information given for each of them is Country of Birth, Prussia; Last Residence, Neustadt; and Destination, Cincinnati.  Martin Kuhn’s occupation is indicated as weaver.  The blue arrows on the last page below point to the family.
Kuhn family on ship Albert arriving 21 Aug 1862.

Passengers #88 through 94 are the six members of the Kuhn family arriving in Baltimore, MD, 21 Aug 1862.
Source:; Baltimore Passenger Lists Indexes, 1820-1948, Ship: Albert, Arrival: 21 Aug 1862, Lines 88-94, NARA Microfilm, Wash., D. C.
     Finally, the eleven Kuhns are in America.  In August of 1862, after nine years of work and separation, their plan to establish a new home was successful. All of the family members traveled to Cincinnati to be at one location together, at least for some period of time.   They all survived an arduous six-week trip with overcrowding and unfavorable conditions on the emigrant ships.  From this point the family history takes many interesting paths.
    Thanks for visiting Indiana Ties,

If you would like to download the above images from my Scribd account: Click Here
To learn about the port from which the three voyages above departed, Bremen/Bremerhaven, click here:
To see a transcription of the Eva’s passenger list that includes Gottfried Kuhn, click here:
To read about the 1853 cholera and yellow fever epidemics in New Orleans, click here:
To learn a little about the Steerage Act of 1819 and the history of passenger trade to America, click here:

Copyright © 2016, Nancy Niehaus Hurley

Monday, May 2, 2016

Getting Into The Ruhlkirchen Church Records -- Birkenstock Project, Part 4

     Where were we with Kate Birkenstock’s marriage? I discussed in my earlier post, Birkenstock Project, Part 3, that I was renting the Ruhlkirchen German Catholic church records on microfilm from the Family History Library to locate a marriage record for Katherine Birkenstock and Martin Kuhn.  Recently I had my first look at one of the three film rolls that arrived from the FHL.
    To view the microfilm I went toSample of German Alphabet Types from The German Researcher by Dearden the Genealogy Society of Marion County (Indianapolis), the local history center where the microfilm was sent.  Since I estimate the marriage date to be 1834 to 1836, I chose to begin with film #939230, Mainz Diocese, Ruhlkirchen Parish, Baptisms, Marriages and Deaths, 1830 – 1860. Within a few minutes I was reminded that deciphering Gothic script and then translating from German to English is quite a challenge. But wait! I also have to remember to be patient and take this step by step, getting the most that I can from what I have.  The films are on a 60-day rental. So I’m going to call this first viewing my overall introduction.
     I came to the library armed with my German research references that contain Gothic script alphabet samples and German words commonly used in church records. Since I am a novice, having only read German church records once several years ago, I knew I needed quite a bit of help.  My references were of great assistance for understanding the basics of what I was viewing. For instance, for the headings on the pages I was able to translate ort und tag to place and date; die Trauung to the marriage, braut to bride, and so on. I was able to get a start with searching for the Birkenstock name in the marriage records for a particular year.
         From the first few rolls forward on the microfilm of Ruhlkirchen church records I was excited.  Wow! There’s an index and I can actually read the Birkenstock name in the list. If this is how it’s going to be, I thought I would get directly to what I wanted and possibly decipher enough of the Gothic script to find my marriage record. Take a look at the photo and you’ll see the Birkenstock’s on a page from the church book. 
Index from Mainz Diocese, Ruhlkirchen Church Records, 1830-36

       From this beginning I was optimistic about finding Kate and Martin’s record. I could see reference numbers next to the names that might indicate pages.  Well, that’s not exactly how this search progressed.  I advanced the microfilm through some pages of baptism (taufe) records until I saw the marriages. There I found that the person(s) who wrote the marriage records had a decidedly less readable script than I viewed in the index. And the reference numbers next to those Birkenstock names don’t seem to be easy to find either.  Oh well, I’ll have to work with what’s there. I snapped photos of several pages so that I could look at them more casually, translate the page headings and make a plan on how to proceed.  Below is an example of a page of marriage records from 1834 so that you can see what I mean about the script.
Excerpt from Church Records Book, Ruhlkirchen Marriages, 1830-36
      So far, I’ve had success with translation of the page headings. For instance, a summary of the above marriages page, columns left to right, are:
      Place and Date —    Church Proclamation —    Date, Place, Witnesses —    Remarks
     Other information about the bride and bridegroom would be listed on the facing page to this one.

What did I learn in this first look inside the Ruhlkirchen church records?
    --- There is a good possibility I am in the correct church, judging from the Birkenstock family history and the many Birkenstock names listed.
    --- It’s more workable for me to use photographs of the microfilm taken on screen with my camera.  Then I can study them at home using my computer rather than sitting in front of the reader for long periods of time.

 What should be my next steps?
    --- I'm reviewing the first few screen shots of the 1835 marriages, comparing entries, deciphering a few words and getting used to these records before I have another day of viewing.
   ---  When I go to read microfilm next, I’ll open the other rolls first to determine whether there are 1835 or 1836 marriage records. Just in case they are written in a script that could be easier to read.
   ---  I’m planning to photograph all of the 1835 and 1836 marriage pages to examine them closely for Katherine Birkenstock and Martin Kuhn.

     Overall, I am still psyched to find some news on Kate and Martin’s marriage. I’m determined not to become discouraged in sifting through the Ruhlkirchen church records. It’s interesting to put my eyes directly on these pieces of 1800s family history, even if I can only decipher a fraction of it.  One thing that comes to mind is how someone would read my writing almost 200 years from now. Will they know what the terms are that I’m using without doing some research and consulting?  Do you think anything that we write down will survive that long…or will future family historians be looking at only digital records? Or none at all? 
     Meanwhile, I’ll keep researching on the Birkenstock Project.  If there are suggestions from anyone on my path, I am happy to hear them.  

Thanks for visiting Indiana Ties,

Related Stories You May Want to Read:
Taking My Research To Church, Birkenstock Project, Pt 3 
Ruhlkirchen and Neustadt in Hesse, Birkenstock Project, Pt 3 
When and Where Was Katherine Birkenstock Married to Martin Kuhn, Pt 1

Copyright © 2016, Nancy Niehaus Hurley

Wednesday, April 27, 2016

Billy and Donny Niehaus -- Wordless Wednesday (Almost)

     As I come across a family photo that makes me immediately smile, or say “Awe!” I just have to get a post ready for Wordless Wednesday.  I think you’ll agree that this one that popped up when I was doing some cleanup today would definitely be in that category.  Here’s a precious photo of two Niehaus cousins, Billy and Donny, taken in our grandmother’s back yard on Singleton Street, Indianapolis. I’d estimate this is taken about 1947 when they were both between 4 and 5 years old.  Billy is the son of Ed and Gin (Weber) Niehaus and Donny (my brother)  is the the son of Frank and Rosemary (Weber) Niehaus.  They must be hunting Easter eggs, based on the baskets.  They look ready to storm the yard for surprises. Aren’t they adorable!Weber and Niehaus Cousins:  Billy and Donny Niehaus

Thanks for visiting Indiana Ties,
Related posts where you may want to click:
Generations of Veterans: Cousin Bill
Family Memorial Day: My Brother, Don

Copyright © 2016, Nancy Niehaus Hurley

Sunday, April 24, 2016

Taking My Research To Church, Birkenstock Research Project, Pt 3

     Where am I on the search for Katherine Birkenstock and Martin Kuhn’s marriage? It’s time for church.  My research in Part 2 guided me to look for Kate’s church records in Ruhlkirchen, Hessen, Germany in the 1830s. I’ve been enhancing my skills and having an interesting time taking that path.    
     But while I go about piecing together more of their lives, I thought it would be helpful to have in front of us a reminder of where Kate and Martin fall in the family chart. So below is a simple pedigree chart using my mother, Rosemary Weber, as a starting point. Kate Birkenstock is her great grandmother. If you are in her line, insert yourself or a family member where appropriate.  Kate and Martin Kuhn were immigrants to Connersville, Indiana in 1862. After Martin’s death, Kate came to Indianapolis to live, sometime between 1874 and 1879. Thus we have our roots of this Birkenstock/Kuhn line. 
Birkenstock Chart Framed
     Now, for that research into a church marriage record.  As a result of my review of “what I know about Katherine Birkenstock Kuhn” in Parts 1 and 2, I believe that Katherine’s birthplace is Ruhlkirchen, Hessen, Germany and the approximate date of her marriage to Martin Kuhn is between 1834 and 1836.  Since the history of the Kuhn family tells me that they were Catholic in the United States, I’m starting my search with Catholic church records for the area where Kate was born. I realize the Birkenstock family may not have been Catholic, but my search has to begin somewhere.
     The logical choice for me would be to begin by looking for possible online sources that might include an index, OR, if I’m lucky, an image of this marriage record.  In times past, I’ve checked without success at for church records in Hessen. But it’s good to return to see if there are additional records posted.  But, no luck. The Germany, Select, Marriages, 1558-1929, database at doesn’t cover the area I’m researching in Hessen. 
     Then I tried my newest online resource,  The Germany Marriages records on that site appear to be the same records as ancestry. An individual search within family trees likewise didn’t produce any good leads.  Of course, an online research effort wouldn’t be complete without a Google search. Again, there were no additional websites to investigate. That is, except the one I already had on my list -
     Here’s where the sun shown on my research!  My search began with a records search, inputting Anna Katherina Birkenstock, marriage place Germany and an estimated marriage date of 1834.  This might result in a marriage record that’s been indexed, or even a copy of the original church record.  Or there could be a clue from someone else’s family tree.  I didn’t find any records that I felt led me to  the marriage record.
     But there’s so much more to investigate at the familysearch website.  If there were microfilmed church records for Ruhlkirchen, I could look at the microfilm at a Family History Center near me.  So, from the main website page I used the catalog link to get to Germany, Marriages and select Hessen from the list of places in Germany.  The list of types of records and places in the state of Hessen is very long. I had to keep paging down to find the Ruhlkirchen church records.  The records available on microfilm could be promising. Below I’ve posted an excerpt from the search results: 
Kirchenbuch, 1731-1876
Katholische Kirche Ruhlkirchen (Kr. Alsfeld) (Main Author)
Format:  Manuscript/Manuscript on Film
Language: German
Publication: Salt Lake City, Utah : Gefilmt durch The Genealogical Society of Utah, 1973
Physical: 4 Mikrofilmrollen ; 35 mm.
Notes: Mikrofilme aufgenommen von Manuskripten im Dioezesanarchiv, Rottenburg.
Parish registers of baptisms, marriages and deaths for Ruhlkirchen, Hessen, Germany. Includes Ohmes, Vockenrod and Seibelsdorf. Text in Latin and German.

Subjects —  Locality Subjects
Germany, Hessen, Ruhlkirchen - Church records

Taufen, Heiraten, Tote 1792-1830 -- Microfilm #939229

Taufen, Heiraten, Tote 1830-1860 -- Taufen, Heiraten 1861-1891 -- Taufen, Heiraten, Tote 1731-1792 — Microfilm #939230 

Taufen, Heiraten, Tote 1830-1857 (Ohmes) -- Taufen, Heiraten, Tote 1830-1860 (Vockenrod) -- Taufen, Heiraten, Tote 1830-1860 Seibelsdorf) -- Taufen, Heiraten 1857-1879 (Ohmes) -- Tote 1857-1900 (Ohmes) —  Microfilm #939231
     When I reviewed these listings I noted that there were marriage (heiraten) records from the Ruhlkirchen Catholic Church that fall within the 1830s dates that I’m estimating for Katherine Birkenstock and Martin Kuhn. Of course, my next step was to order these films.  At the bottom of the search results page is a link to the online ordering system. I paid the $7.50 rental fee for each microfilm and selected the Genealogy Society of Marion County as my Family History Center.  The microfilmed church records from Ruhlkirchen, Hessen, are on the way. I can peruse the records using the microfilm viewer at the GSMC. If the Birkenstock/Kuhn marriage is recorded in this particular church I’m optimistic that I’ll find it in this microfilm.
     Now I’m brushing up on my German.  I have lists of commonly used words from my research books so that I can decipher enough of the records to find Kate and Martin’s marriage.  And, if I get stuck, there are helpful genealogists around that I’m sure will assist.  I’ll be back with the results from my Ruhlkirchen church records, and more.

Thanks for visiting Indiana Ties,

Copyright(c) 2016 Nancy Niehaus Hurley  
Related Posts:
Where and When Was Katherine Birkenstock Married To Martin Kuhn, Part 1
Ruhlkirchen and Neustadt, Hessen, Birkenstock Research Project, Part 2

Thursday, April 21, 2016

Death Certificate: Katherine Birkenstock Kuhn, 4 July 1890, Indianapolis, Marion County, Indiana

     There’s a story in every document.  This one adds to the ongoing Birkenstock Project that I’m recording slowly but surely. Katherine Birkenstock emigrated from Hessen, Germany, in 1862 with her husband and children.  She lived in the United States for 28 years and died  on July 4th, 1890, while living with her daughter, Wilhelmina, in Indianapolis, Indiana.  Below is her death certificate from the Marion County Health Department, followed by a transcription.   
Kuhn, Katherine Birkenstock, Death Certificate, 1890

Marion County Health Department
Indianapolis, Indiana
Certificate of Death
Name: Kath Kuhn
Date of Death:  7/4/1890
Birth place: Germany
Residence: Indianapolis
Place of death:  Marion County, Indianapolis
Sex: Female
Age: 82
Race: White
Marital Status: Widowed
Immediate cause: Shock from fall
Other significant conditions contributing: coroners
Date of Burial:  7/7/1890
Cemetery: Catholic yards
Certificate No.  8210, Vol. 6, pg. 82
Death certified by:  D. A. Wagner (coroner) MD
Date filed: 7/6/1890
Date issued: 7/20/2005
Clerk: LReeves
     This information isn’t necessarily unusual, for a lady of 82 years of age.  But when we read the immediate cause of death as “shock from fall” it possibly makes you wonder.  And then, the next line states other significant conditions contributing:“coroners.”  Well, I don’t have every detail, but I do have a partial answer.  Katherine’s will states that she is leaving all her property and possessions to her daughter, Wilhelmina, “having taken care of me during my life time and having nursed and cared for me since I became blind…”  This information about Katherine’s eye sight could explain the cause of death from a fall.  I’m glad her daughter was there for her. 
     But I haven’t yet found the answer to the contributing conditions note listing “coroners”.  If she died in her home from other than natural causes, there could have been a coroner’s investigation.  A report most likely won’t give us any other significant information.  But….all of these documents have a story, right?! Sounds like another To Do item for the Katherine Kuhn list.  
     Thanks for visiting Indiana Ties,

Copyright © 2016, Nancy Niehaus Hurley

Related posts you might like to read:
Katherine Birkenstock Kuhn’s Will Discovery
Where and When Did Katherine Birkenstock Marry Martin Kuhn?, Part 1
Where and When: Ruhlkirchen or Neustadt in Hessen? Katherine Birkenstock/Martin Kuhn, Part 2

Tuesday, April 19, 2016

Tuesday Tip: Great Reminders -- Why U Can’t Find Your Ancestors

    Recently I’ve been researching a few surnames that have strange variations.  Meaning I’ve come across unlikely, and sometimes, wrong spellings. But who knows how they were rearranged, whether deliberate or not, over many years.  We only know that it’s important to stop to think about every possible way the name may have been pronounced, spelled or understood as our ancestors changed their location and/or interacted with others.  As I was reminding myself to keep these variations in mind, I remembered a related article posted at Rootsweb.   It was helpful for me to read it again and I thought I’d pass it along. Click on the link below to consider more solutions to finding those hard-to-uncover family members:  1209243_238594249628745_606587747_n
Why U Can't Find Your Ancestors
Misspeld Knames — A Commun Probblem for Reeserchors

     One of the suggestions in the article is to think of all the ways that your ancestor’s surname might have been spelled (or indexed) and make yourself a list to use in doing thorough  research.  So,  I tried a mind workout with a few of my ancestor names.  How have I found them in the past, or how could I imagine they might be hiding away in those old records? Here goes:
   Albers could be: Aulbers, Ahlbers, Allbers, Albeers, Ulbers
     Birkenstock could be: Biergenstock, Beerginstock, Birgenstok, Birkenstog
     Keen could be: Kihn, Kien, Kean, Keene
     Kraut could be:  Krout, Krote, Kraus
     Niehaus could be: Niehues, Niehus, Neehouse, Nihus
     Weber could be: Webber, Wieber, Veber
     What kind of name variations could you develop? Have any suggestions for me?  I hope this helps you in thinking differently of your family and leads to finding some of those elusive ones. 
    Thanks for visiting Indiana Ties,
Copyright © 2016 Nancy Niehaus Hurley