Friday, September 12, 2014

Gerald John Niehaus - An Alien Enemy? -- 52 Ancestors Challenge

Gerald John Niehaus,  1874 - 1918
    I had heard stories from Niehaus relatives over the years that Uncle Joe had to register with the government during World War II because he was German and not a citizen. They mentioned he was required to report on his whereabouts.  I filed this information in my family history memory bank.  As I learned more through the years of research, I still had a few questions. How many of the eight immigrant brothers, and maybe sisters, also had that obligation?  Was that World War I and II?    It's one of those stories I wanted to complete at some point. 
     But then, my fellow family researcher cousin, Patsy (Niehaus) Cracraft, sent me photos of Gerald Niehaus's "Alien Registration" dated 1918.  Gerald was her grandfather and Joe Niehaus's brother and my grand uncle.  He was the first born of the Niehaus children who immigrated to Indianapolis from Germany with their parents in 1886.  He died at the young age of 44, leaving his widow, Amanda, with four young children and one on the way.  Evidently, he never became a citizen of the United States.  His face and fingerprint were now calling me to investigate.  I soon found more of Gerald's alien enemy story.
     When Woodrow Wilson declared war against Germany in April of 1917, Gerald John Niehaus was the quintessential "alien enemy."  WWI proclamation pg 3He was classified within the group of "all natives, citizens, denizens, or subjects of Germany, being males of the age of fourteen years and upwards, who shall be within the United States and not actually naturalized, who for the purpose of this proclamation and under such sections of the Revised Statutes are termed alien enemies."  This is a section of Presidential Proclamation 1364 of April 6, 1917, by President Woodrow Wilson declaring war against Germany, 04/06/1917.   You might want to read the proclamation later. The link's at the bottom of this post.  For now you can see the page about alien enemies on the right. 
     Six months after the definition of alien enemies within the declaration of war, there was another proclamation that required those folks to register with the federal government,   (Presidential Proclamation of November 16, 1917).  Provision #19 of this proclamation reads:
All alien enemies are hereby required to register at such times and places and in such manner as may be fixed by the Attorney General of the United States and the Attorney General is hereby authorized and directed to provide, as speedily as may be practicable, for registration of all alien enemies and for the issuance of registration cards to alien enemies and to make and declare such rules and regulations as he may deem necessary for effecting such registration; and all alien enemies and all other persons are hereby required to comply with such rules and regulations; and the Attorney General in carrying out such registration, is hereby authorized to utilize such agents, agencies, officers and departments of the United States and of the several states, territories, dependencies and municipalities thereof and of the District of Columbia as he may select for the purpose, and all such agents, agencies, officers and departments are hereby granted full authority for all acts done by them in the execution of this regulation when acting by the direction of the Attorney General. After the date fixed by the Attorney General for such registration, an alien enemy shall not be found within the limits of the United States, its territories or possessions, without having his registration card on his person.
     I now know that Gerald complied with this requirement on  February 15, 1918.  Each person completed an affidavit giving background information.   According to his personal record shared by my cousin, Patsy, he registered with Police Precinct No. 3 in Indianapolis, having his photo and fingerprint taken.    These are the copies of that "registration card" that he carried on his person.
Enemy Alien Registration, Gerald Niehaus, Indianapolis, Indiana, 1918Enemy Alien Registration, Gerald Niehaus, Indianapolis, Indiana, 1918

     When he wanted to change his residence one-and-a-half miles south from Chadwick Street to R. R. E, Box 91, Gerald was granted permission by Sergeant Harry Howard on March 26th, 1918.  Here's another provision of the November, 1917, proclamation containing that requirement:
           "…An alien enemy shall not change his place of abode or occupation or otherwise travel or move from place to place without full compliance with any such regulations…."
     Also I want to talk about the piece of this proclamation that relates further to this family history.  The registered people were required to report to the federal government.  This was true in World War 1 for Gerald, and his brother, Joe, and others as well.  Here is that reference within the proclamation we've been looking at for November, 1917:  
           "…such regulations concerning the movements of alien enemies as he may deem necessary in the premises and for the public safety, and to provide in such regulations for monthly, weekly or other periodical report by alien enemies to federal, state or local authorities; and all alien enemies shall report at the times and places and to the authorities specified in such regulations."
     Not many of these records of alien enemies survive today.  The affidavits completed included questions on the person's residence, involvement in military or anyone in their family who may have taken arms for or against the United States, and other personal information.  No one knows for sure, but the Indiana records haven't surfaced in any institution.   By the way, women were also required to register, so the sisters weren't disregarded.  The National Archives has posted online some examples of the existing affidavits in other states.  (Link below.)
     I'm grateful to Patsy Cracraft for sharing this rare record created by Gerald Niehaus.  Maybe there are a few more in the boxes in the attic of other cousins.  There is a sad and ironic ending to Gerald's story.  He died suddenly of a heart attack approximately six weeks after moving to his new residence in Indianapolis in 1918.  We don't know if he would have become a citizen and avoided the same enemy alien registration that occurred during World War II.  We know that immediately after the bombing of Pearl Harbor, President Roosevelt issued a proclamation authorizing detention of potentially dangerous enemy aliens.  So, there is a lot to this story passed along in the Niehaus family! 
     Thanks for visiting Indiana Ties.  Please leave me a comment if you want to add to this story!
More about Gerald Niehaus's life at this post: Gerhardt "Gerald" John Niehaus: The Eldest Child of Joseph and Gertrude
For further reading on the alien enemy topic:
Presidential Proclamation 1364 of April 6, 1917, by President Woodrow Wilson declaring war against Germany, 04/06/1917.  (
Presidential Proclamation of November 16, 1917, pertaining to "the movements of non-naturalized males of German origin, 14 years of age and older." :
National Archives records:
Following the onset of hostilities during World War I, non-naturalized "alien enemy " by definition, were required to register with United States authorities as a national security measure. Under the provisions of a Presidential Proclamation of April 6, 1917, non-naturalized female aliens were likewise registered as an additional national security measure that included those women of American birth that were married to enemy aliens. Registration affidavit include questions about whether any male relatives have been in arms for or against the United States or its allies.  Also, have you been registered for draft.  Have you declared intent to be citizen.
Here's an blogger who wrote an excellent overview on the topic: The Legal Genealogist blog: An Alien Notion,  16 Nov 2012 -
Note on 52 Ancestors Challenge:  I am participating in the 52 Ancestors Challenge being led by Amy Johnson Crow at  She's bringing together family history writers who share ancestral stories throughout 2014.  There's a wide variety of stories each week written by people everywhere and about people from everywhere.  Visit Amy's blog to read some interesting histories.
Copyright 2014 © Nancy Niehaus Hurley

Wednesday, September 10, 2014

Wordless Wednesday (Almost) -- Reflecting on 75 Years of the Niehaus Reunion

2002 - Niehaus Family Cousins
     This Sunday, September 14, 2014, represents 75 years of Niehaus Family Reunions for the Indianapolis family of Joseph and Gertrude (Wilmsen) Niehaus.  The family has been gathering for reunions since that first day at Garfield Park in 1939.  A group of the people responsible for maintaining those family ties is in this photo from the 2002 reunion:  Bernie Niehaus (1910-2005), Charlotte (Niehaus) Baxter (1912-2012), Robert Niehaus (1914-2006), Alberta (Stull) Hickman (1917-2006), Jane (Stull) Hickman, Frank Kirn (1920 - 2004), Marie (Kirn) Dallessandro (1905 - 2012), Larry Niehaus. 
     Everyone's encouraged to stop by the Pioneer Park in Mooresville, Indiana, to add to these good memories!

Sunday, August 31, 2014

2014 Weber Kuhn Reunion -- Enjoying Time Together

     The Weber Kuhn Family of Indianapolis has another nice memory for the record!  Yes, we did have temps in the high 80s along with dripping humidity. But we're a ruggedLukas Knorr, grandson of Chuck and Pat Holzer, born June 2014. lot. Everyone agreed there was a super reunion at the Sarah Bolton Park in Beech Grove, Indiana, on August 23.  Our numbers were down a little; but the laughter, good conversation and excellent food wereH. A. Weber plentiful.  Our matriarchs, Peg Stull and Ruth Weber, spread their usual pleasant tone.  We even had representation from the newest generation, Lukas Knorr (photo on right),  just under three months old.  Among the family born since the last reunion, he's a third great grandchild of Harry Adam (on the left) and Mary Anna (Keen) Weber.  The photo of Harry Adam Weber was one of the photos that caused a little uncertainty in the contest we had this year for identifying family members.  So, he earned a feature here on our reunion post.
       Aunt Peg's heritage quilt, stitched with the signature squares made by last year's attendees, added more beautiful tradition. A happy Mary Anne Lindblom was the lucky winner of the quilt raffle.  Both sharing the family's past and making new history annually give this event special meaning.  We always try hard not to miss saying our hellos to everyone.  But it's also enjoyable to just sit in a lawn chair and watch the kids enjoying themselves on the playground. 
     Our 2014 Weber Kuhn Tribune (Volume 4) shared newsy updates along with history.  I am grateful that Bob Weber's daughter, Janet, read the newsletter carefully and gave me a couple of corrections for my Family Spotlight on her father this year.  I am posting a corrected version of the newsletter on our family history website. (See the link below.)  I'm happy to send the newsletter by email or snail mail if there are any requests from those who are unable to attend the reunion.  Send me a name and address or email address in the comments section below.
     Lastly, I am posting a few photos from this year's reunion. This time I was less busy with my camera, but still managed to snap the flavor of the good times.  I'm sure my sister, Marti, has some goodies to share also.  I'll add hers later.   Click on the album link below or go to the tab above marked Weber Kuhn Reunion.
     Thanks for visiting Indiana Ties.
  (Click Here to find the 2014 Weber Kuhn Tribune.)
Copyright © 2014 Nancy Niehaus Hurley

Tuesday, August 12, 2014

I Wonder What Tillie Thought About Her Right To Vote - 52 Ancestors Challenge

Recently I read a blog post that caused me to step back and wonder.  Helen Holshouser wrote about her ancestor who was active in the Women's Suffrage Movement, culminating when the 19th Amendment to the U. S. Constitution was ratified in 1920.   (I'll link to Helen's story at the end of this post.)  After reading her story, I found myself thinking: How did the women in my family feel before and after they acquired the right to vote for their leaders?   Were they aware of the suffrage movement activities?  And how did they react, if at all.  
Actually, the struggle to attain the right to vote for women took nearly 100 years. Women such as Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony campaigned, wrote, gave speeches, were imprisoned and found whatever avenues they could to enlighten people and fight for women's suffrage.  Isn't it amazing that this movement took so long to be successful, let alone that it was necessary.  Who knows which of our ancestors supported in some way the groups and programs leading up to the success of 1920. 
Well, thinking of these times and the issues, it didn't take me long to connect the time frame to one person in my family.  In 1910 when Otillia "Tillie" Kuhn Weber  - 1913suffragettes were organizing protests and lobbying congress, my grandmother, Otillia "Tillie" Kuhn, was 19 years old.  She was 29 years old in 1920 when these activities succeeded in opening the voting booth to women.  No, I have no knowledge of Tillie being involved in any women's suffrage activities.  I can't know exactly what her feelings or her actions were.  But if we stop to take a closer look at my grandmother's life from 1910 to 1920, at the crescendo of the fight for women's right to vote, it could be interesting to contemplate what may have run through her mind.  
1910 - 1912:
Although some states and municipalities had taken action since the early 1800s to grant women the vote, in 1910 they were as yet denied that right on the federal level.  Tillie Kuhn was 19 to 21 years old from 1910 to 1912, the time frame when we now take it for granted that young people begin exercising their voting rights.  Tillie was fortunate enough in those early years to attend a year of business college.  And by 19 was employed as a bookkeeper at a retail dry goods store.  She lived with her family in the home where she was born on High Street in Indianapolis.   In this year when Tillie was a young working girl the first suffrage parade was held in New York City, organized by the Women's Political Union.  And by 1912 that parade grew to 20,000 suffrage supporters with a half-million onlookers.  1911 was also the year that the National Association Opposed to Woman Suffrage was founded, bringing more attention to the opposing views. 
Tillie would surely have been aware of these activities by reading the local newspapers and discussing events with her family and co-workers at the dry goods store.  She had three older sisters and one younger one, as well as her older brother, Charlie. In fact, Tillie's older sister, Lill, was employed as a saleslady at a dry goods store.  I am going to venture to say that the Kuhn family was informed of these issues of the day.  Perhaps Tillie and Lill walked to work together discussing their thoughts about suffrage events, or even how they might have voted.  Here's a retro piece published by the Indianapolis Star that helps paint the landscape of the suffrage campaign in Tillie's locale:
The right to vote for women in Indiana was a long, hard-fought battle that began in 1851 when a man ­-- Robert Dale Owen (founder of the New Harmony utopian society) -- advocated for women¹s rights at the constitutional convention held in Indianapolis.  His proposal went nowhere and it would be another 70 years before women in Indiana had the right to vote.  Suffragettes such as Amanda Way, Zerelda Wallace, May Wright Sewall, Helen Gougar, Dr. Amelia Keller and Grace Julian Clarke led the push for suffrage.  In 1911, the Woman¹s Franchise League of Indiana was formed and became a driving force for the right to vote. The women of Indiana held rallies, marches, participated in parades, and lobbied the government.
1913 - 1915:
In June of 1913, four months after she turned 22, Tillie Kuhn married Harry Weber in Sacred Heart Catholic Church in Indianapolis.  As far as we know she did not work outside the home after she married.  Their son, Bob, was born in May of 1914.  Establishing a marriage and her family probably became Tillie's main focus, if I could make a presumption.  But the push for women's suffrage was continuing wholeheartedly.  For instance, in 1913 Illinois became the first state to grant women presidential suffrage by legislative enactment.  And in March of that year preceding President Woodrow Wilson's inauguration, 8,000 suffragists paraded in Washington, D. C.  The explosiveness of the issue is evidenced by the abusive crowds that mobbed the marchers.  Some say that a faction of those against women's right to vote were wealthy and influential women who were afraid they would lose power when all women were allowed to vote.  The stature that they had attained through wealth was threatened.  (Follow the money!)
Speaking of the power of money, in September 1914, a bequest from Mrs. Frank Leslie, publisher of Leslie's Weekly, put $1,000,000 at the disposal of Carrie Chapman Catt for "the furtherance of the cause of woman suffrage."  As Tillie was maturing, becoming a wife and mother, the women's suffrage movement became more mature also.  The leaders kept their campaigns strong, working state by state and dogging their representatives in Congress.  However,  who knows if a young mother in Indianapolis who wasn't active politically had many thoughts about these efforts.  On the other hand, she must have  read updates in the newspaper she received each morning on her front porch.  Maybe she felt grateful for those who had the ways and means to be involved.  Seems logical to me.
1916 - 1920:
In March of 1916 Tillie gave birth to her second child, Rosemary Ethel Weber, my mother.  Things keep evolving for her; now she has a female descendant.  Did the right-to-vote movement take on a new meaning?  Did she have a keener interest in change?  At 26 years old her views on how the decisions of the leaders of the country and her community impacted her life may have been developing. 
The activity of the suffragists were still gaining strength as state after state secured legislative enactments and the National Woman's Party were arrested for picketing and sent to jail, creating martyrs for the cause.  On December 2, 1916, suffragists flew over President Wilson's yacht and dropped suffrage amendment petitions.  Again I'm wondering what Tillie Weber's opinion was of all of these events, especially of the women who went to jail for their commitments? 
The persistence of the women and men behind this cause resulted in President Wilson giving his public support of the federal woman suffrage amendment in January of 1918.  Then, on January 10, the House voted in favor of a suffrage amendment.  In September of that year the President addressed the Senate personally, arguing for women's suffrage.
If these activities hadn't yet brought the impact home for Tillie, it became personal when in 1919 Indiana also secured presidential suffrage by legislative enactment.  In the final stages of the fight, on June 4, 1919, the Senate passed the 19th Amendment with just two votes to spare, 56 to 25. The Constitutional Amendment contained the same wording drafted by Susan B. Anthony in 1878.  The 19th Amendment was ratified by the required 36th state on August 18, 1920 and signed into law by the Secretary of State on August 26, 1920.   
In these four years of tremendous advancement for women in the United States, Tillie Kuhn would have been raising her son and daughter.  Also, she and Harry moved into what became their family home of approximately 50 years at 2160 Singleton Street in Indianapolis.  Harry Weber was advancing in his career with Fletcher Trust Company.  And by December of 1920 Tillie had delivered another baby girl, Virginia.  There were a lot of demands on Tillie to occupy her waking moments.  Just about any political event may have been squeezed out of her thought process most of the time.  However, judging from my knowledge of the Weber family personalities I would imagine Harry and Tillie having discussions of these national and local events over dinner, or when they found a few moments time in the evening.   
Of course, all of my speculation and imagining is just that. There are most likely no more details to learn. But I have a new perspective on this momentous time of progress for women in the United States by traveling through it with Tillie Kuhn Weber.  Regardless of what her Lingiftopinions were or if she realized the full impact of these events, she had an intimate involvement by being there. 
Speaking of women in my life, I want to wish my sister, Linda, a happy birthday.  As she always reminds me, she's the youngest!  The relationship chart posted here traces her maternal line back to Tillie.  And I'm also posting a photo of Lin holding a photo of our mom.   I'm glad to have all of these ladies in my line.  Hope the entire year's a good one for you, Lin!
Otillia Kuhn relationship chart to Linda Niehaus.
Helen Holshauser's blog is Heart of a Southern Woman.  Here's a link to that thought-provoking blog on Women's Suffrage.
You may be interested in reading these related posts:
Happy Anniversary to Harry and Tillie (Kuhn) Weber
Tillie Kuhn Weber - Ladies In My Line
Copyright 2014 © Nancy Niehaus Hurley

Saturday, August 9, 2014

Reminder: Weber-Kuhn Family (Indianapolis) Reunion Is Around The Corner


The time is almost here for another reunion of the descendants of Harry Lawrence Weber and Tillie Kuhn Weber of Indianapolis.  Just in case there are members of our family who did not yet hear about this year's Weber-Kuhn Family Reunion on August 23, I am posting the details below.  I would be glad to find the answers to any question about the reunion. Leave me a comment in the section below this posting.  It's so nice to have this day of visiting with everyone.  I look forward to seeing you there!

Family of Harry Lawrence and Otillia (Kuhn) Weber


Weber Kuhn Family Reunion

Saturday August 23, 2014

11:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.

Sarah T. Bolton Park – Hilltop Shelter

1300 Churchman Avenue

Beech Grove, IN

Bring the whole family, your stories,  and photos to share.

Plans are to share a pitch-in lunch, some laughs and catch up on each other's lives.  

So make plans to be there.  Bring something to contribute for lunch. 

You’ll also want to bring beverages and lawn chairs. 

There are picnic tables, shelter for some shade and playground equipment.

Special ingredient: “Raffle of the Family Memories Quilt”

Handmade by Peg Stull

Wednesday, July 23, 2014

Wordless Wednesday (Almost) -- A Niehaus Family Fishing Tale

Niehaus clan on a fishing trip in Minnesota.
     Look at this catch!  Summer fishing trips are special memories in this Niehaus family.  I thank my cousin, Pat Cracraft, who shares these great photos from her family album.  You can see her special touches in the mounting around the edges and her hand lettering in her scrapbook. 
      Don't you just love the seriousness of these guys. Knowing the usual boisterous attitudes in this group, surely they weren't subdued for long.   From left to right: Kemo Hickman joined the family when he married Janie Stull, Dick Stull (Janie's brother) is a son of Al and Feenie (Niehaus) Stull and Abe is a son of Gerald and Amanda Niehaus.  This super fishing day was during their families' summer vacation at Cross Lake, Minnesota in the 1940s. 
     There had to be a delicious fish fry that evening.
     Thanks for visiting Indiana Ties.  For a look at other family photos in this series click on the Wordless Wednesday link at the left.

Copyright © 2014 Nancy Niehaus Hurley

Tuesday, July 15, 2014

Our Brewery Man -- Charles Anthony Kuhn -- 52 Ancestors Challenge

         I am participating in the 52 Ancestors Challenge being led by Amy Johnson Crow at  She's bringing together family history writers who share ancestral stories throughout 2014.  There's a wide variety of stories each week written by people everywhere and about people from everywhere.  You can see the list by visiting Amy's blog. 
       Many families with Charles A. Kuhn, 1850 - 1916, Neustadt, Kurhessen, Germany - Indianapolis, IndianaGerman heritage have at least one connection to brewing beer, right?!  My great grandfather, Charles Anthony Kuhn, is my direct link. Charles was the son of Martin and Katherine (Birkenstock) Kuhn, born in Neustadt, Kurhessen on the 10th of June 1850.  His family emigrated in the 1860s to Connersville, Indiana. As he matured, Charles made his way to Indianapolis and to his experiences in the brewery business. 
      Through the Indianapolis City Directories and the censuses we can follow Charles's employment.   These historical records were extremely helpful in answering the whats and wheres of his life.  I learned that from 1877 to approximately 1905, age 27 to 55, Charles was a "brewery man"  at the C. F. Schmidt Brewery in Indianapolis and at later merged breweries.   Also listed in the directories in 1870s and 1880s is the Schmidt Brewery at Schmidt's Square, McCarty Street, south end of Alabama.
     The brewery address led me to the Sanborn Insurance Map from 1889 posted below presenting the layout for the company.  Take a look at the details, such as, the mash house, cold storage and cooper shop.  You can see that the company name at this time is the Indianapolis Brewing Company, after a merger of three breweries.  The brewery takes up a square block bounded by Alabama, McCarty, High and Wyoming Streets.   This location focuses in on another feature of Charles's history.  His home from the time he arrived in Indianapolis in 1875 until he died in 1916 was on High Street, two or three blocks north of the brewery.  Convenience! 1898.Sanborn Ins. Map includes a diagram of the Indianapolis Brewing Company, formerly the Schmidt Brewery
    Charles's job assignment at the brewery may or may not have been consistent over the years.   Some years he is listed in a city directory or census as a brewery man, then a brewery laborer, a brewer and yet another job listing is watchman at C. F. Schmidt.  How many different jobs these descriptions actually represent is hard to tell.  That's an answer I can only wonder about.  
     However, there are some interesting details available that might shed some light on his life during those brewery years.  His brother-in-law, John Scherrer, who was 12 years older than Charles, was a "brewer" for many years at various breweries in the city.  Perhaps John was an influence and mentor for Charles when he decided to move from Connersville to the big city and begin his career.  Since Charles lived in the Scherrer household for a period of time when he first came to Indianapolis, there is a strong possibility that's how the story went.  
    In 1879 Charles married Mary Anna Risch and they moved into their own home -- also on High Street, as neighbors of the Scherrers.  Looking a little further down the street we find another brewery worker and relative, Joseph Resch, Mary Anna's brother.  For a period of time during the 1870s and early 1880s Charles, John and Joseph were brewery workers simultaneously. These family members maintained their neighborly relationship throughout their lives.  Charles most likely received a good word at the Schmidt Brewery from either Joseph or John in order to get his job. Being eight to twelve years younger, I would say Charles Kuhn benefited considerably from the counsel of his brothers-in-law.  Can't you see the three guys making the stroll down High Street from their homes to the brewery -- Or sitting on one of their front porches on High Street enjoying a lager after a tiring day.  The beer business was definitely a factor in this family history!
Following is a brief history of the Schmidt Brewery from the website
Founded by Christian Frederick Schmidt and Charles Jaeger, the C.F. Schmidt brewery was located at the south end of Alabama Street (although some references say it was located at "Wyoming St. at High". Jaeger soon sold his interest to Schmidt, thinking Schmidt's management was not sound. They made about 1500 barrels per year.
"By the outbreak of the Civil War, Schmidt Brewery was producing a superior lager beer, and soon was supplying troops stationed in Indianapolis." - Nuvo, June 8, 2005.
The 1870 Indianapolis City Directory has an ad for C. F. Schmidt, Brewer of Lager Beer, Smith's Square, Indianapolis. The directory lists John Buhier, Louis Ehrmann, Ernest Ihrzohn, Henry Metzger, and Joseph Resoh as the brewers.
C.F. Schmidt died in 1872 and his widow, Caroline, operated the business with her brother, William Fieber until 1877 when her sons, John W and Edward Schmidt took it over. It was incorporated into the Indianapolis Brewing Company in 1887.
"Mr. Bosenberg is sole agent for the justly celebrated C. F. Smith's Lager Beer, manufactured at Indianapolis, Indiana. The qualities for which this beer is most distinguished are its healthfulness, purity, brilliancy of color, richness of flavor &c, the result of excellent water, intelligent care of its brewers conjoined to the use of apparatus possessing all the best modern improvements made in this country or elsewhere, and to the superior quality and quantity of the ingredients used. No claims are made for this beer that cannot be substantiated." - Rochester Sentinel, Feb 29, 1888. Yes, that said 1888. After the merger, each brewery continued their own brewing operations. The C. F. Schmidt plant at McCarty and High Streets closed on May 27, 1920 after 70 years of brewing.
(The  website has more interesting reading on the development, the individuals involved and more brewing business.)
    Thanks for visiting Indiana Ties. 

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Copyright © 2014 Nancy Niehaus Hurley